By William H. Benson



November 24, 2021

Senators and Representatives first met in Congress, under the U.S. Constitution, on March 4, 1789, in the Federal Building in New York City.

Six months later, on September 25, James Madison, a Virginia Representative then, submitted to the House twelve amendments to the new Constitution.

His first—called the Congressional Apportionment Amendment — specified that each member of the House shall represent no more than 30,000 people. It fell one state short of adoption, and no state since has ratified it. It appears dead.

Madison’s second—called the Congressional Pay Amendment — stat...

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